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The Moon



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FACTS

Distance From Earth: 225,745 miles

Length of a Day: 27.3 days

Radius: 1,080 miles

Diameter: 2,160 miles

Weight: 81 Quintillion Tons

Surface Temp (Day): 273° F

Surface Temp (Night): - 244° F

Gravity At Surface: 0.1667 g (1/6 Earth's)

Orbital Speed 2,287 mph

Driving time by car (@70 mph): 135 days

Flying time by rocket: 60 to 70 hrs.

No. of Men Who Have Walked on Surface: 12

Age of Oldest Rock Collected: 4.5 Billions yrs.

Rocks Collected By Apollo: 842 pounds

Widest Craters: 140 miles (dia.)

Deepest Craters: 15,000+ (ft.)

Highest Mountains: 16,000+ (ft.)

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FROM THE "DID YOU KNOW DEPARTMENT" - MORE FACTS

The moon is actually moving away from earth at a rate of 1.5 inches per year.

The surface area of the moon is 14,658,000 square miles or 9.4 billion acres.

Only about 59 percent of the moon's surface is visible to us here on earth.

The moon is not round, but egg shaped with the large end pointed towards earth.

The earth rotates about 1000 mph. By comparison, the moon rotates about 10 mph.

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FUN FACTS

The Sea of Tranquility is on the Moon. It’s not a real sea, but a “maria,” one of the regions on the Moon that appear dark when looking at it.

The surface speed record on the Moon is 10.56 miles per hour. It was set in an Apollo lunar rover.

The size of the first footprint on the Moon was 13 by 6 inches, the dimensions of Neil Armstrong's boot when he took his historic walk on July 20, 1969.

The dark spots on the moon that create the benevolent "man in the moon" image are actually basins filled 3 to 8 kilometers deep with basalt, a dense mineral, which causes immense gravitation variations.

The final resting place for Dr. Eugene Shoemaker – the Moon. The famed U.S. Geological Survey astronomer had trained the Apollo mission astronauts about craters, but never made it into space. Dr. Shoemaker had wanted to be an astronaut but was rejected because of a medical problem. His ashes were placed on board the Lunar Prospector spacecraft before it was launched on January 6, 1998. NASA crashed the probe into a crater on the moon on July 31, 1999, in an attempt to learn if there is water on the Moon.

Contrary to popular belief, the Moon does have an atmosphere. It is very thin. If you took all of the molecules in one cubic centimeter of atmosphere from the Moon and lined them up, they would fit inside the period of this sentence. If you took a cubic centimeter of atmosphere from the earth at sea level and lined all of the molecules up, it would go from the earth to the Moon and back again two and a half times.

The first spacecraft to send back pictures of the far side of the Moon was Luna 3 in October 1959. The photographs covered about 70 percent of the far side.

In China, the dark shadows forming a face is seen as "the toad in the moon," not the “man in the moon." The toad is considered one of the five poisons of yin. It is believed that eclipses occur when the “toad in the moon” tries to swallow the moon itself.

The temperature on the Moon reaches 243° F at midday on the lunar equator. During the night, the temperature falls to -261° F.

The first U.S. flag on the moon was deployed by Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin during their historic EVA on July 20, 1969 (at 4 days, 14 hours, and 9 minutes mission-elapsed time).

The U.S.S.R. captured the first photo of the moon taken from space in 1959. The image was of the dark side of the moon.

The footprints left by the Apollo astronauts will not erode since there is no wind or water on the Moon. The footprints should last at least 10 million years.

Astronaut Neil Armstrong first stepped on the moon with his left foot.

The gold-plated 33-rpm record "Camelot" was left behind on the moon by the Apollo astronauts.

Light from the Moon takes about a second and a half to reach Earth.

The impact basin Aitken on the far side of the Moon is 2250 km in diameter and 12 km deep, making it the the largest in the solar system.

When walking on the moon, astronaut Alan Sheppard hit a golf ball that went 2,400 feet, nearly one-half a mile.

Astronaut and moon-walker James Irwin's NASA name tag, coated with lunar dust, sold at auction for $310,500. The cloth keepsake, a 6- by 12-inch rectangle, was cut from the insulated jacket worn by Irwin during the 1971 flight of Apollo 15. Lunar dust, which created a dark gray tint around the tag's edges, became embedded into the tag during three separate moonwalks Irwin took. His jacket and other equipment were left on the Moon to lighten the spacecraft’s load on the return trip home, but Irwin cut out and kept his NASA tag as a memento.

Mare Tranquillitatis, or Sea of Tranquility, was the name of the first manned lunar landing.

As of 1988, the U.S. census bureau determined that a stunning 13% of the population believe that some portion of the earth's moon is actually comprised of cheese.

Flying once around the moon is the equivalent of a round trip from New York to London. (Earth is about four times the size of the moon.)


*The Dark Side of the Moon: Apollo 16 Mission*

The average desktop computer contains 5-10 times more computing power than was used to land a man on the moon.

The multi-layered space suit worn by astronauts on the Apollo moon landings weighed 180 pounds on Earth and 30 pounds on the Moon with the reduced lunar gravity.

Just twenty seconds' worth of fuel remained when Apollo 11's lunar module landed on the moon.

You always get to see the same half of the moon because it is rotating at exactly the same rate it is moving around the earth: 29.5 earth days. This, however, is no coincidence since this match is caused by unequal mass distribution on the moon.

Gene Cernan was the last man to step on the moon in 1972.

Baskin-Robbins introduced the flavor "Lunar Cheesecake" to commemorate America's landing on the moon on July 20, 1969.

There is evidence that many people gain and lose weight in accordance with the cycles of the Moon.

Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin Jr. was the second person, after Neil Armstrong, to walk on the moon.

The volume of the Earth's moon is the same as the volume of the Pacific Ocean.

The Apollo 13 Mission was planned as a lunar landing mission but was aborted en route to the moon after about 56 hours of flight due to loss of service module cryogenic oxygen and consequent loss of capability to generate electrical power, to provide oxygen and to produce water.

Apollo Lunar Mission number 13, which was aborted while enroute to the moon in 1970 because of an explosion of a fuel cell in the service module, left the launch pad at 13:13 (CST) hours military time and the accident occurred on April 13.

In addition to the familiar features on the near side, the Moon also has South Pole-Aitken on the far side which is 2250 km in diameter and 12 km deep making it the the largest impact basin in the solar system and Orientale on the western limb which is a splendid example of a multi-ring crater.

The Moon has no global magnetic field.

Due to its size and composition, the Moon is sometimes classified as a terrestrial 'planet' along with Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. The last man to fly in space alone was not Mercury astronaut Gordon Cooper, but Apollo 17 command module pilot Ron Evans, who circled the Moon alone while astronauts Gene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt went to the surface.

If you added up the mass of all of the thousands of known asteroids in the asteroid belt, the total would be less than ten percent of the mass of the Earth's Moon.

The Apollo missions returned 2196 rock samples, weighing 382kg in total.

There are over 500,000 craters on the moon that can be seen from the planet Earth.

The diameter of the largest crater on the moon is 144 miles across. The largest crater that can be seen on the Moon is called Bailly or the 'fields of ruin.' It covers an area of about 26,000 square miles, about the size of West Virginia, and over three time the size of Wales.

It is NOT TRUE that the Great Wall of China is the only man-made object visible from the Moon. It is only visible from a low Earth orbit, such as that of Skylab. From this height, many other human artefacts, cities, highways and field systems, also become visible.

If the moon were placed on the surface of the continental United States, it would extend from San Francisco to Cleveland (2,600 miles)

The Hubble Space Telescope can resolve features on the lunar surface down to 85 metres (280 feet) across.

When the Apollo 12 astronauts landed on the moon, the impact caused the Moon's surface to vibrate for 55 minutes.

Easter is the first Sunday after the first Saturday after the first full moon after the equinox. (The equinox is quite often March 21, but can also occur on the March 20 or 22.)

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MOON RISE FACTS

The New Moon always rises at sunrise.

And the first quarter at noon.

The Full Moon always rises at sunset.

And the last quarter at midnight.

Moonrise takes place about 50 minutes later each day than the day before.

The new moon can not be seen because the illuminated side faces away from the earth. This occurs when the Moon lines up between the Earth and the Sun.

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PHASES OF THE MOON

New Moon--The Moon's unilluminated side is facing the Earth. The Moon is not visible (except during a solar eclipse).

Waxing Crescent--The Moon appears to be partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing.

First Quarter--One-half of the Moon appears to be illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing.

Waxing Gibbous--The Moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing.

Waning Gibbous--The Moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing.

Last Quarter--One-half of the Moon appears to be illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing.

Waning Crescent--The Moon appears to be partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing.



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THE BLUE MOON



In modern terms, the event known as a blue moon is related to the western calendar system. A blue moon is the second of two full moons to occur in the same calendar month. Blue moons occur infrequently (thus the saying once in a blue moon to denote a rare event), because the length of the calendar month in this system is close to the length of the period of the moon's phases (synodic month). They are not impossible, because every month except February is longer that this period by 1 or 2 days. The next blue moons (based on UTC) will be on July 31 2004, June 30 2007, December 31 2009, August 2012, July 2015, January and March 2018, and October of 2020.

The original meaning of blue moon was the third full moon in a season when there are four full moons in that season: this had to do with church holy days related to the last or first full moon of a season (like Easter). This usage had been almost entirely forgotten, and the original meaning was uncovered only when researchers for Sky & Telescope magazine noticed that the Maine Farmer's Alamanac from 1829 to 1937 reported blue moons that did not fit the first meaning of the term above. Therefore there is two very different definitions:

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A Blue Moon is the third of four full moons in a season.

A Blue Moon is the second full moon in a calendar month.

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Visibly blue moons are rare events. They can be caused by smoke or dust particles in the atmosphere, such as happened after forest fires in Sweden in 1950 and Canada in 1951 and, notably, after the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883, which caused blue moons for nearly two years.

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Question: What's more rare than a blue moon.
Answer: A month with no full moon

This phenomenon happen only four times this past century, the last in February 1999. In fact February is the only month in which this can occur. The month before and the month afterwards will both have blue moons. The 21st century will see the event only four times: February 2018, 2037, 2067, and 2094.

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Blue Moon Facts - On Average:

Blue Moons occur once every 2.7 years.

7 times every 19 years.

Once every 33 months.

37 times every century.

Once every 33 full moons.

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THE ORANGE MOON


Have you ever wondered why the moon is more orange or yellow in color when it first rises at night. This effect is caused by the atmosphere of the earth. The reason for the orange color is due to the scattering of light by the atmosphere. When the moon is near the horizon, the moonlight must pass through much more atmosphere than when the moon is directly overhead. By the time the moonlight reaches your eyes, the blue, green, and purple pieces of visible light have been scattered away by air molecules. That's why you only see yellow, orange, or red.

The moon can have an orange color at any time of the year. Sometimes the moon appears orange even when it's directly overhead. This occurs when there's a lot of dust, smoke, or pollution in the atmosphere. The size of those particles will determine the type of color you will see.

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FULL MOON NAMES



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Commonly Used names

January -- Storm Moon
A storm is said to rage most fiercely just before it ends, and the year usually follows suit.

February -- Chaste Moon
The antiquated word for pure reflects the custom of greeting the new year with a clear soul.

March -- Seed Moon
Sowing season and symbol of the start of the new year.

April -- Hare Moon
The sacred animal was associated in Roman legends with springtime and fertility.

May -- Dyad Moon
The Latin word for a pair refers to the twin stars of the constellation of Castor and Pollux.

June -- Mead Moon
During late June and most of July the meadows, or meads, were mowed for hay.

July -- Wort Moon
When the sun was in Leo, the worts (from the Anglo-Saxon wyrt plant) were gathered to be dried and stored.

August -- Barley Moon
Persephone, virgin Goddess of rebirth, carries a sheaf of barley as a symbol of the harvest.

September -- Blood Moon
Marking the season when domestic animals were sacrificed for winter provisions. Libra's full moon occasionally became the Wine Moon when a grape harvest was expected to produce a superior vintage.

October -- Snow Moon
Scorpio heralds the dark season when the sun is at iss lowest and the first snows fly.

November -- Oak Moon
The sacred tree of the Druids and the Roman God Jupiter is most noble as it withstands winter storms.

December -- Wolf Moon
The fearsome nocturnal animal represents the "night" of the year.

The Blue Moon -- Variable
A Blue Moon occurs when the moon with its 28 day cycle appears twice within the same calendar month, due to that month's 31 day duration. Many consider the Blue Moon to be a goal moon where you set specific goals for yourself.

The Black Moon -- Variable
A Black Moon occurs when there are two dark cycles of the moon in any given calendar month. It is believed that the second dark moon of a time of great power within the spiritual world and any magick worked during this time is especially powerful.



Colonial American

January: Winter Moon

February: Trapper's Moon

March: Fish Moon

April: Planter's Moon

May: Milk Moon

June: Rose Moon

July: Summer Moon

August: Dog Day's Moon

September: Harvest Moon

October: Hunter's Moon

November: Beaver Moon

December: Christmas Moon


Chinese

January: Holiday Moon

February: Budding Moon

March: Sleepy Moon

April: Peony Moon

May: Dragon Moon

June: Lotus Moon

July: Hungry Ghost Moon

August: Harvest Moon

September: Chrysanthemum Moon

October: Kindly Moon

November: White Moon

December: Bitter Moon


American Indian (Cherokee)

January: Cold Moon

February: Bony Moon

March: Windy Moon

April: Flower Moon

May: Planting Moon

June: Green Corn Moon

July: Ripe Corn Moon

August: Fruit Moon

September: Nut Moon

October: Harvest Moon

November: Trading Moon

December: Snow Moon


American Indian (Choctaw)

January: Cooking Moon

February: Little Famine Moon

March: Big Famine Moon

April: Wildcat Moon

May: Panther Moon

June: Windy Moon

July: Crane Moon

August: Women's Moon

September: Mulberry Moon

October: Blackberry Moon

November: Sassafras Moon

December: Peach Moon


American Indian (Dakotah Sioux)

January: Moon of the Terrible

February: Moon of the Raccoon, Moon When Trees Pop

March: Moon When Eyes Are Sore from Bright Snow

April: Moon When Geese Return in Scattered Formation

May: Moon When Leaves Are Green, Moon To Plant

June: Moon When June Berries Are Ripe

July: Moon of the Middle Summer

August: Moon When All Things Ripen

September: Moon When The Calves Grow Hair

October: Moon When Quilling and Beading is Done

November: Moon When Horns Are Broken Off

December: Twelfth Moon


Celtic

January: Quite Moon

February: Moon of Ice

March: Moon of Winds

April: Growing Moon

May: Bright Moon

June: Moon of Horses

July: Moon of Claiming

August: Dispute Moon

September: Singing Moon

October: Harvest Moon

November: Dark Moon

December: Cold Moon


English Medieval

January: Wolf Moon

February: Storm Moon

March: Chaste Moon

April: Seed Moon

May: Hare Moon

June: Dyan Moon

July: Mead Moon

August: Corn Moon

September: Barley Moon

October: Blood Moon

November: Snow Moon

December: Oak Moon


Neo Pagan

January: Ice Moon

February: Snow Moon

March: Death Moon

April: Awakening Moon

May: Grass Moon

June: Planting Moon

July: Rose Moon

August: Lightening Moon

September: Harvest Moon

October: Blood Moon

November: Tree Moon

December: Long Night Moon


New Guinea

Name: Rainbow Fish Moon

Name: Parrotfish Moon

Name: Palolo Worm Moon

Name: Flying Fish Moon

Name: Black Trevally Moon

Name: Open Sea Moon

Name: Tiger Shark Moon

Name: Rain & Wind Moon

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THE MOON AND PLANTING



1) First quarter planting, or the time from the new moon to about half-full.
Plant annuals with above-ground yields, particularly leafy plants which produce their seed outside the fruit.
1st Qtr. Examples:
asparagus cabbage, celery, endive, and spinach.


2) Second quarter planting, or the time from the half-full to the full moon.
Plant annuals that have above-ground yields which are vining and produce seed inside the fruit.
2nd Qtr. Examples:
beans, peas, peppers, squash, eggplant, tomatoes, cucumbers.


3) Third quarter planting, or from the full moon to half-full.
Plant biennials, perennials, bulb and root crops. Crops which are planted one season that produce yields the following year: trees, and shrubs.
3rd Qtr. Examples:
onions, potatoes, rhubarb, grapes, winter wheat, and berries.


4) Fourth quarter planting, or from half-full to new moon.
4th Qtr. Examples:
pull weeds, cultivate, destroy pests, and turn sod.

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Moon Planting Wise Tales...

Plant potatoes during the "dark of the moon" is an old adage.

Plant your seeds within 48 hours before a full moon.

Do not plant on the day of the New Moon or Full Moon.

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LUNAR ECLIPSES



What causes a Lunar Eclipse?

A lunar eclipse happens when the Moon passes through the Earth's shadow. Earth always has a shadow, which is created by the Sun. On those rare occasions when the Moon, Earth and the Sun are all lined up just right, the Moon passes through this shadow.This would happen every full moon if the Moon orbited around the Earth in the same plane as the Earth orbits around the Sun. The Moons orbit, however, is tilted about 5 degrees above the Earth-Sun plane. This tilt itself, however, rotates, allowing eclipses to happen when the tilt of this plane lines up with the Earth-Sun plane, blocking sunlight.


When can one view an eclipse?

A lunar eclipse is visible over an entire hemisphere and is seen at the same time to everyone who is in sight of the full moon. Because of local time zones, however, the times of a lunar eclipse can span many hours.


How long does an eclipse last?

Lunar eclipses can last for more than three hours because the Moon and the Earth are moving slowly in relation to each other, and the shadow cast by the Earth is so large. Because of their sizes and the relative distances between the Earth, Moon, and Sun, this shadow is much larger than that cast by the Moon on the Earth (during a solar eclipse).


Are all eclipses the same?

Although eclipses are always caused by the same general lineup of Sun, Moon, and Earth, each lunar eclipse may have its own unique visual characteristic. Colors and the deepness of the shadow on the surface are affected by the type of eclipse, local weather conditions, atmospheric conditions, and the geographic location of the observer. When the Moon is in the darkest part of Earth's shadow, or in totality, it can have some beautiful colors, usually a dark pastel, such as violet or a very dark apricot.

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What are the three types of eclipses?

Partial Lunar Eclipse---A portion of the Moon passes through the Earth's umbral shadow. These events are easy to see, even with the unaided eye.


Penumbral Lunar Eclipse---The Moon passes through the Earth's penumbral shadow. These events are subtle and quite difficult if not impossible to observe. During a penumbral eclipse the moons light is dimmed but does not go dark due to the fact that the penumbral shadow is not dark enough to black out the sun's light. A penumbral eclipse is sometimes referred to as an appulse eclipse.


Total Lunar Eclipse---The entire Moon passes through the Earth's umbral shadow. During the time of totality the moons color may change to a dull copper tone, an effect caused by earth shine or reflected earth light. The moon can stay in the umbrals shadow for as long as 90 minutes.

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Lunar & Solar Eclipse Facts

Full moons are the only time lunar eclipses occur.

New moons are the only time solar eclipses occur.

A solar eclipse always occurs two weeks after or two weeks before a total lunar eclipse.

Lunar eclipses can last for a maximum of 3 hours and 40 minutes, with the period of totality lasting for as long as I hour and 40 minutes.

Solar eclipses can last for a maximum of 7 minutes and 40 seconds if they are total (at the equator), 12 minutes and 24 seconds at most if they are annular.

Lunar eclipses can never happen more than three times a year. Solar eclipses happen at least twice a year but never more than five times a year.

Lunar eclipses are visible over an entire hemisphere. Solar eclipses are visible in a narrow path that is a maximum of 167 miles wide (269 km).

The greatest number of solar and lunar eclipses that can happen in a year is seven.

At any specific geographic location on the globe, a total solar eclipse can occur only once every 360 years, on average.

Solar eclipses and lunar eclipses go together in pairs. A solar eclipse is always followed or preceded by a lunar eclipse, within an interval of 14 days. Eclipses may also occur in threes, alternating lunar, solar, lunar.

The characteristics of one eclipse are repeated every 18 years, I 1 days, and 8 hours, with some minor variations. This long-term rhythm is called the Saros cycle. At any given time, there may be several dozen different series of this cycle in effect.

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MOON MYTHS AND RHYMES



Pale Moon doth rain,
Red Moon doth blow,
White Moon doth neither,
Rain Nor Snow.

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Clear Moon, Frost Soon.

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A dark mist over the Moon,
is a promise of rain.

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The heaviest rain falls,
following the New and
Full Moons.

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The Full Moon eats the
clouds away.

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A New Moon and a windy night
sweep the cobwebs out of sight.

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A Red Moon is a sure sign of
high winds.

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And should the Moon wear a halo
of Red, a tempest is nigh.

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Many rings around the Moon
signal a series of severe
blasts.

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A single ring around the
Moon that quickly vanishes
heralds fine weather.

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When the New Moon holds
the Old Moon in its arms
(Ring around the New Moon)
disasters at sea occur.

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Sharp horns on the Sickle
Moon indicate strong winds.

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When the Moon's Horns point up
the weather will be dry.

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When the Moon's Horns point
down, rain spills forth.

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Blunt horns on a Crescent
Moon presage a long spell
of fair weather.

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Click here to view the current moon phase or the moon phases beginning in 1800 all the way to 2199 A.D.




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Book of Shadows